Tatarstan is one of the largest and economically developed regions of Russia. It ranks among the top three leaders of agricultural production in Russian Federation. Moreover, it is called - the oil republic. It has a trade and economic connection with European and Asian countries.
The capital of Tatarstan is Kazan. A beautiful, modern city with a population of 1 million and 206 thousand people. Kazan is a center for scientific, cultural, economic, industrial and political life of Tatarstan.
A few words about the name of the region:
The history of the republic with that name starts in 1920, when Vladimir Lenin signed a decree of the TASSR formation (TASSR was a part of the RSFSR).
In august 30, 1990 Tatarstan was given a sovereignty and took a new name - the Republic of Tatarstan.
Tatarstan is the central part of Russia, it is located at the junction of the Volga River and the Kama River. In the west, it borders with the Republic of Chuvashia and the Republic of Mari. In the north with Kirov region and Udmurtia. In the east - with Bashkortostan and Orenburzhskiy region. In the south - with the Ulyanovsk region and Samara region.
The territory of the republic is 67 836 km². It’s length in vertical is about 290 kilometers and across is about 460 km.
According to analysis of survey data for 2015, the number of people living here is 3.855.258 people. Mostly they are Tatars and Russian.
Tatarstan is one of the most diverse regions of the country. 115 nationalities live here: Chuvash, Udmurt, Bashkir, Mari, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Armenians, Jews, and others.
The State Flag:
Tatarstan’s flag is represented in the shape of a rectangle with three horizontal stripes: green, white and red.
What do they symbolize?
· Green is a symbol of spring, rebirth
· White is purity
· Red is a maturity, vital energy
There is another interesting version:
· Green is Tatars
· Red is Russian people
· White is a symbol of their friendship
Tatarstan includes 43 district and 22 cities.
The most famous cities
• Naberezhnye Chelny
Naberezhnye Chelny is the second largest in population city after Kazan. It is located in the north-eastern part of the republic. The distance to Kazan is 225 km. The population is 524 thousand people.
Zelenodolsk is located in the north-west part of the Republic of Tatarstan, 38 km to the capital. About 98 thousand people live here.
Yelabuga is the city which is located near to Naberezhnye Chelny and Nizhnekamsk, 215 km to Kazan. The number of people living here is 72 thousand.
Nizhnekamsk is a city which is located on the left bank of the Kama, 236 km to the capital. The number of people living here is 235 thousand.
Almetyevsk is situated in the southeastern part of the region. 279 km from the capital. The population is 150 thousand people.
Bugulma’s location is also in the southeastern part of Tatarstan. The way to Kazan is 333 km. It is home to 87 thousand people.
Chistopol is situated in the middle part of Tatarstan. The distance to the capital is144 km. 61 thousand people live in Chistopol.
Zainsk is the city which located between two rivers – Stepna and Lesnoy Zai. The population is 41 thousand people. There is 287 km to Kazan.
Leninogorsk is the south-eastern part of Tatarstan. The distance to the capital is 322 km. 64 thousand people live in Leninogorsk.
Bavly - southeast part of the Republic of Tatarstan. There is 369 km to Kazan. The population is 22 thousand people.
Nurlat is the city in the southern part of the republic. 33 thousand people live in this city. The way to Kazan is 200 km.
Aznakayevo is situated in the southeastern part of the Republic of Tatarstan, 376 km to Kazan. The number of people living there is 35 thousand.
Buinsk is located in the south-western part of Tatarstan. 21 thousand people live there. It is located in 137 km to the capital.
Tatarsta has a moderate continental climate with warm summer and winter. July is the warmest month in the year. The average temperature is from + 18 ° C to +20 ° C, the coldest month is January with the temperature from -13 ° C to -14 ° C. There are slight changes in temperature through the whole republic!
Tatarstan is mostly a flatland with forests and forest-steppe areas. The republic has a rich world of nature. There are many rivers, lakes and ponds. Despite the fact that the area abounds in steppes, there are a lot of areas which are occupied by pine and deciduous forests. Here can be found a lot of minerals, among them the most important - oil and coal. Tatarstan also has the largest water reservoirs - Kuibyshev and Nizhnekamsk.
The region has many water bodies: large and small rivers, lakes, which have their own unique features. Tatarstan has a huge water storage, which performs strategic function.
Rivers and lakes:
Volga and Kama are the largest river of Eastern Europe. The length of the first river is 177 km, the second is 380 km, Vyatka is 60 km and the River Belaya is 50 km, flows into the Kama River. Anyway, the most famous rivers of Tatarstan are Sviyaga, Mesha, and Shoshma.
Moreover, the Republic also has about 500 smaller rivers with the length more than 10 km.
Also, there are about 8 thousand small-size lakes and ponds.
There is a large number of country’s reservoirs such as:
· Kuibyshev – is the largest in Europe
· Nizhnekamskoe - is a big body of water
· Karabashskoe – is the main system of water supply to major industrial factories, etc.
Flora and fauna of Tatarstan:
Forest occupies 18% of the entire territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. Basically, oak, birch, linden, aspen and pine and spruce grow here. Usually, the steppes border forests. All together they form vast numerous zones of forest-steppe. Moreover, taiga forest can be found here. There you can see such trees as larch and pine needles.
Forest in Tatarstan provides a comfortable life for animals. More than 400 animal species live in the republic’s forests (hares, squirrels, elk, foxes, hedgehogs, martens, wolves, bears, etc.). There are more than 270 different types of birds (falcons, skylarks, golden eagles, grouse, owls, woodpeckers, hawks and many others).
Tatarstan is a surprisingly fertile region, which is represented by a large number of black soil lands. There is a lot of humus (a useful substance which contains the most vital minerals and so on) observed in the southern regions of the country.
Tatarstan has an extensive mineral resources base which is for a great importance to the whole country.
Many people know that the country is famous for its petroleum. For the last few years, there were found 127 oilfields, the main ones are:
· Romashkinskoe – is one of the biggest oilfields in the world
Other Tatarstan’s natural resources:
· Oil shale
· Building stone, etc.
The natural resources of Tatarstan are used in different Russian industries.
The Republic’s location makes it a key element in the transport system of Russia. It connects the eastern and the western parts of the country, as well as allows the Russian Federation to contact with the near and the far abroad countries.
Tatarstan is a region with well-developed transportation route with the motorways, train routes, airlines, river routes.
Almost every city of Tatarstan has its own bus station
There are three airports in Tatarstan:
· “Kazan” («Казань»)Airport
Address: Laishevsky District of Republic of Tatarstan.
Telephone number: +7 (843) 267-88-07, +7 (843) 267-87-53
· “Begiwevo” («Бегишево»)
Address: Tukayevsky District
Telephone number: +7 (855) 945-70-14
· “Bugulma” («Бугульма») (international and domestic airlines)
Address: Bugulminsky District
Telephone number: +7 (855) 946-35-80
There are also two small aiports in Chistopol and Menzelinsk
Main railway ccenters:
Kazan, Zelenodolsk, Agryz, Krugloe Pole (Chelny), and Bugulma.
You always can check the train schedule here: www.rzd.ru
Ships sail through the Volga river, Kama, Vyatka, Sviyaga and Belaya.
The large Tatarstan’s ports are located in Kazan and Naberezhnye Chelny. The total length of waterways is 1057 km.
The information about the station in Naberezhnye Chelny http://mindortrans.tatarstan.ru/rus/predpriyatiya/pvt/rpn-ch.htm
The Kazan Kremlin was founded in the days of the Bulgarian Khanate. It is currently a historical and architectural reserve. The whole complex of buildings will tell visitors about the rich history of the Kazan.
Unfortunately, the date of the building of the tower Syuyumbike is unknown, because the historical documents were lost. Some documents were burned in a fire in Moscow in 1701, others - during the capture of Kazan by the troops of Ivan the Terrible in 1552
Victory Park in Kazan includes the Memorial complex of the Heroes of World War II, an exhibition of military equipment, as well as beautiful alleys.
The Governor's Palace in Kazan was built in 1848 on the former site of the Khan's palace, and was designed by architect K. A. Ton.